What was the result of the Nez Perce war?
The conflict, fought between June and October 1877, stemmed from the refusal of several bands of the Nez Perce, dubbed "non-treaty Indians," to give up their ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest and move to an Indian reservation in Idaho.
Nez Perce War.
|Result||United States victory|
Who won the Battle of the big hole?
Battle of the Big Hole Date 9–10 August 1877 Location Beaverhead County, Montana 45°38′51″N 113°39′03″WCoordinates: 45°38′51″N 113°39′03″W Result Inconclusive Belligerents United States Nez Perce Commanders and leaders
Who lost the Nez Perce War of 1877?
The battle dealt the Nez Perce a grave, though not fatal, blow. The remaining Indians were able to escape, and they headed northeast towards Canada. Two months later, on October 5, Colonel Nelson Miles decisively defeated the Nez Perce at the Battle of the Bear Paw Mountains.
On October 5, 1877, Chief Joseph, exhausted and disheartened, surrendered in the Bears Paw Mountains of Montana, forty miles south of Canada.
Having seen his warriors reduced to just 87 fighting men, having weathered the loss of his own brother, Olikut, and having seen many of the women and children near starvation, Chief Joseph surrendered to his enemy, delivering one of the great speeches in American history. "I am tired of fighting," he said.
On August 9, 1877 gun shots shattered a chilly dawn on a sleeping camp of Nez Perce. By the time the smoke cleared on August 10, almost 90 Nez Perce were dead along with 31 soldiers and volunteers. Big Hole National Battlefield was created to honor all who were there.
The last major event of the Indian Wars was the Massacre at Wounded Knee, an area in South Dakota in 1890.
With just 200 warriors, Chief Joseph managed to take his people 1,400 miles while fighting fourteen battles against the much larger and better equipped U.S. army. However, eventually he ran out of food, blankets, and many of his warriors had been killed.
Miles and his troops surprised the Nez Perce bands 40 miles south of the Canadian border. After a five-day battle on Bears Paw Mountains in Montana, Chief Joseph—the only surviving chief—surrendered to Miles.
An estimated 60 to 90 Nez Perce lost their lives at the Battle of the Big Hole. Many of the Nez Perce victims included women, children, and elders. This national battlefield is a step into history and serves to honor those who fought and died.
The visitor center will be closed Friday, December 24,2021 through Saturday, December 25,2021.
Closures & Seasonal Exceptions.
|Christmas Day||December 25||CLOSED|
Chief Joseph was a Nez Perce leader who led his tribe called the Wallowa band of Nez Perce through a treacherous time in United States history. These indigenous people were natives to the Wallowa Valley in Oregon. Chief Joseph was a powerful advocate for his people's rights to remain on their homeland.
On December 29, 1890, in one of the final chapters of America's long Indian wars, the U.S. Cavalry kills 146 Sioux at Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota. As that was happening, a fight broke out between an Indian and a U.S. soldier and a shot was fired, although it's unclear from which side.
While many Native American war leaders and chiefs were known for their combative resistance towards the U.S.'s westward expansion, Chief Joseph, Wallowa leader of the Nez Perce, was known for his concerted efforts to negotiate and live peacefully with his new neighbors.
Joseph and those with him were promised that they would be returned to Idaho, but they were sent to a swamp at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas where half of them contracted malaria. Many adults and children died.
On October 5, 1877, his speech, as he surrendered to General Howard, immortalized him in American history forever: "I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed.
"Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever." On October 5, 1877, Chief Joseph spoke these words during his surrender in the Bear Paw Mountains of Montana.
|Known for||Nez Perce leader|
|Predecessor||Joseph the Elder (father)|
|Spouse(s)||Heyoon Yoyikt Springtime|
Geronimo (1829-1909) was an Apache leader and medicine man best known for his fearlessness in resisting anyone–Mexican or American—who attempted to remove his people from their tribal lands.
This Date in Native History: On September 4, 1886, the great Apache warrior Geronimo surrendered in Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, after fighting for his homeland for almost 30 years. He was the last American Indian warrior to formally surrender to the United States.
|Big Hole National Battlefield|
|Location||Beaverhead County, Montana, USA|
|Nearest city||Dillon, MT|
|Coordinates||45°38′15″N 113°38′37″WCoordinates: 45°38′15″N 113°38′37″W|
|Area||655 acres (265 ha)|
Battle of the Big Hole
Big Hole is located on Highway 43 ten miles west of the town of Wisdom in southwestern Montana.
The Comanches, known as the "Lords of the Plains", were regarded as perhaps the most dangerous Indians Tribes in the frontier era. One of the most compelling stories of the Wild West is the abduction of Cynthia Ann Parker, Quanah's mother, who was kidnapped at age 9 by Comanches and assimilated into the tribe.
The British had won the French and Indian War. They took control of the lands that had been claimed by France (see below). France lost its mainland possessions to North America. Britain now claimed all the land from the east coast of North America to the Mississippi River.
For the most part, armed American Indian resistance to the U.S. government ended at the Wounded Knee Massacre December 29, 1890, and in the subsequent Drexel Mission Fight the next day.
"I Will Fight No More Forever" documents this long and violent struggle between Euro-Americans and Native Americans for the lands and resources of North America. It emphasizes the oppression of the Nez Perce by the U.S. government and its military, eventually resulting in the displacement and death of the Indians.
I have asked some of the Great White Chiefs where they get their authority to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one place, while he sees white men going where they please. They cannot tell me. I see men of my own race treated as outlaws and driven from country to country, or shot down like animals.
Using a new device -- a wax cylinder -- Fletcher convinced Joseph to record one of his traditional songs. But she could not talk him into taking an allotment of land. He will have none but the Wallowa Valley, from which he was driven; he will remain landless and homeless if he cannot have his own again.
Today, the Nez Perce Tribe is a federally recognized tribal nation with more than 3,500 citizens.
The Nez Perce Reservation rests in north central Idaho surrounded by the Snake, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers. Historically their homeland covered roughly 16 million acres in parts of what are now Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
Escape to Canada
During and following the Battle of the Bear's Paw Mountains, September 30-October 5, more than 200 Nez Perce men, women, and children managed to flee the camp attacked by Colonel Nelson A. Miles and make their way north some forty miles to cross the border into the British Possessions.
The Nez Perce's escape
The Nez Perce entered Yellowstone National Park on August 23, 1877 near the Madison river. On September 6, 1877 they left the northeast corner of the park via Crandall Creek 44°49′03″N 109°47′13″W en route to the Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone.
Introduction. Montana had little role in the Civil War. In 1861, it was divided between the Dakota Territory and the Washington Territory, then in 1863, it became part of the Idaho Territory. The Montana Territory was created on May 26, 1864, three years after the start of the Civil War.