What are saturated logic families?
Saturated Bipolar Logic Families are:
What is TTL family?
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function (the first "transistor") and the amplifying function (the second "transistor"), as opposed to resistor–transistor logic (RTL) or diode–transistor logic (DTL).
What is TTL and ECL logic?
These are logic familities used in IC (Integrated Circuit) designs. TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) IC technology uses bipolar transistor as principal circuit element. ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic) IC technology uses bipolar transistors configured as differential amplifier.
The families (RTL, DTL, and ECL) were derived from the logic circuits used in early computers, originally implemented using discrete components. One example is the Philips NORBIT family of logic building blocks. Present-day "building block" logic gate ICs are based on the ECL, TTL, CMOS, and BiCMOS families.
In unipolar logic families, unipolar devices are the key element. MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a unipolar device, in which the current flows because of only one type of charge carriers (that is, either electrons or holes). The examples of unipolar families include PMOS, NMOS, and CMOS.
CMOS stands for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor is also another classification of ICs that uses the Filed effect transistor in the design. TTL stands for Transistor transistor logic. It is a classification of integrated circuits.
What Is The Difference Between CMOS and TTL? The advantage of the CMOS over the TTL chips is that the CMOS has a higher density of logic gates within the same material. TTL chips consume more power as compared to the power consumed by the CMOS chips even at rest.
Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and resistors. *TTL contrasts with the preceding resistor-transistor logic (RTL) and diode-transistor logic (DTL) generations by using transistors not only to amplify the output but also to isolate the inputs.
In digital electronics, a NAND gate (NOT-AND) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of an AND gate. A LOW (0) output results only if all the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if any input is LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results.
The Full form of IIL is Integrated-Injection Logic (digital electronics), or IIL stands for Integrated-Injection Logic (digital electronics), or the full name of given abbreviation is Integrated-Injection Logic (digital electronics).
Emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is a BJT-based logic family which is generally considered as the fastest logic available.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS, pronounced "see-moss"), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for
The main characteristics of Logic families include:
Digital logic family is a group of logic gates constructed using passive devices like a resistor, transistor, diodes, etc. Such devices have compatible logic levels and supply voltage with certain characteristics.
Emitter-coupled-logic (ECL) is a BJT logic family that is generally considered the fastest logic available.
Bipolar logic families are classified as belonging to either saturated or non-saturated logic families. In saturated logic, the transistor is switched between the off and saturation regions, while in non-saturated logic, the transistor is switched between the off and active regions.
The NAND and NOR gates are universal gates. In practice, this is advantageous since NAND and NOR gates are economical and easier to fabricate and are the basic gates used in all IC digital logic families.
A logic IC is a semiconductor device that implements a basic logical operation that is performed on one or more digital input signals (represented by 1 and 0 or H and L) to produce a digital output signal.
Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is a digital logic design in which bipolar transistor s act on direct-current pulses. Many TTL logic gate s are typically fabricated onto a single integrated circuit (IC). TTL ICs usually have four-digit numbers beginning with 74 or 54.
TTL chips are generally faster than CMOS gates (but see ACT series), however there are two logic technologies faster than TTL-Emitter-coupled logic (ECL) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). These chips come at considerable cost in power consumption and ease of interface to other logic families.
The main advantage of CMOS logic family is their extremely low power consumption. This is because there is no direct conducting path from Vdd to ground in either of input conditions. So there is practically zero power dissipation in STATIC conditioms.
BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) and Mosfet (Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) are both commonly used for amplification and switching applications.
Difference between BJT and Mosfet.
|Temperature coefficient||Negative temperature coefficient||Positive temperature coefficient|
CMOS gate circuits have input and output signal specifications that are quite different from TTL. For a CMOS gate operating at a power supply voltage of 5 volts, the acceptable input signal voltages range from 0 volts to 1.5 volts for a “low” logic state, and 3.5 volts to 5 volts for a “high” logic state.
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology) is used to construct ICs and this technology is used in digital logic circuits, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and static RAM. The main features of CMOS technology are low static power consumption and high noise immunity.
Diode–transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor–transistor logic. It is called so because the logic gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a diode network and the amplifying function is performed by a transistor (in contrast with RTL and TTL).
In digital circuit design, register-transfer level (RTL) is a design abstraction which models a synchronous digital circuit in terms of the flow of digital signals (data) between hardware registers, and the logical operations performed on those signals.
TTL is an acronym for Transistor-Transistor Logic. Below is an example for standard 5V TTL levels: VOH -- Minimum OUTPUT Voltage level a TTL device will provide for a HIGH signal. VIH -- Minimum INPUT Voltage level to be considered a HIGH. VOL -- Maximum OUTPUT Voltage level a device will provide for a LOW signal.
The symbol of the NAND gate is represented as a combination of AND gate and NOT gate. The Boolean expression is given as Y=¯A. B. .
Symbol and truth table of NAND gate.
Any logic gate can be created using a mixture of basic gates. But using a single type of NAND or NOR gate a basic gate can be created. Hence, they are called Universal gates.
A full adder is a digital circuit that performs addition. Full adders are implemented with logic gates in hardware. A full adder adds three one-bit binary numbers, two operands and a carry bit. The adder outputs two numbers, a sum and a carry bit.
Integrated injection logic (IIL, I2L, or I2L) is a class of digital circuits built with multiple collector bipolar junction transistors (BJT). Although the logic voltage levels are very close (High: 0.7V, Low: 0.2V), I2L has high noise immunity because it operates by current instead of voltage.
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Integrated injection logic (IIL, I²L, or I2L) is a class of digital circuits built with multiple collector bipolar junction transistors (BJT).
However, CMOS is slowest among the given logic family because of the high input impedance (i.e., due to SiO2) takes more time for charging and discharging.
9. Which gate is faster? Explanation: NOR gate is faster. NAND is more complex than NOR and thus NOR is faster and efficient.