What does specific gravity of urine indicate?
A urine specific gravity test compares the density of urine to the density of water. This quick test can help determine how well your kidneys are diluting your urine. Urine that's too concentrated could mean that your kidneys aren't functioning properly or that you aren't drinking enough water.
What does it mean when your urine specific gravity is low?
Low specific gravity (SG) (1.001-1.003) may indicate the presence of diabetes insipidus, a disease caused by impaired functioning of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Low SG also can occur in patients with glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and other renal abnormalities.
What does specific gravity tell us?
The specific gravity is the ratio between the density of an object, and a reference substance. The specific gravity can tell us, based on its value, if the object will sink or float in our reference substance.
Signs of Kidney Disease
Low specific gravity (<1.005) is characteristic of diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, acute tubular necrosis, or pyelonephritis. Fixed specific gravity, in which values remain 1.010 regardless of fluid intake, occurs in chronic glomerulonephritis with severe renal damage.
Abnormal: A very high specific gravity means very concentrated urine, which may be caused by not drinking enough fluid, loss of too much fluid (excessive vomiting, sweating, or diarrhea), or substances (such as sugar or protein) in the urine.
More concentrated urine means that there are more solutes and less water in the sample. Solutes are dissolved particles, such as sugars, salts, and proteins. Normal values may vary based on the laboratory used.
According to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the average value for urine pH is 6.0, but it can range from 4.5 to 8.0. Urine under 5.0 is acidic, and urine higher than 8.0 is alkaline, or basic.
Conditions that cause low specific gravity include: diabetes insipidus. kidney failure. drinking too much fluid due to increased thirst.
The kidneys are responsible for keeping the level of creatinine in the blood within a normal range. The typical reference range for serum creatinine is 60 to 110 micromoles per liter (μmol/L) (0.7 to 1.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL)) for men and 45 to 90 μmol/L (0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL) for women.
The normal values range from pH 4.6 to 8.0. The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples.
White blood cells (WBCs)
An increased number of WBCs seen in the urine under a microscope and/or positive test for leukocyte esterase may indicate an infection or inflammation somewhere in the urinary tract.